Human Trafficking

by Louren Salim





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Intro
The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons defines Trafficking in Persons as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.





Articles


1) Eye To Eye With Katie Couric: Human Trafficking (CBS News)
2) Human trafficking in Vancouver
3) The truth of trafficking
4) Hillary Clinton on human trafficking
5) ‘Trafficked women neglected’
6) South-East Asia: Human Trafficking Exposes ASEAN’s Underbelly
7) Sex trafficking a national disgrace
8) Girl rescued from the clutch of human trafficker
9) Sheriff's deputy, 2 others arrested in Arizona human trafficking bust
10) Study finds 'alarming' human trafficking figures in Mexico's capital
11) MYANMAR: Bride trafficking to China unveiled
12) LAOS: Family pressures exacerbate trafficking


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1. Eye To Eye With Katie Couric: Human Trafficking (CBS News)

Sep. 14, 2007
  • In this video clip by CBS, David Batstone is being interviewed by Katie Couric. In this clip they talk about many things involving human trafficking. They talk about who could be a victim, where it could occur, and what we as citizens can do about it. David Batstone tells us his interesting story about how he found out that human trafficking occurs in the US. Another interesting thing they bring up is that the government can not solve the issue on its own, but with the help of community engaged groups there would be a greater chance. Batstone also explains in his interview about a network that is extremely beneficial.

2. Human trafficking in Vancouver


  • The article by Magda Ibrahim brings attention to the fact that human trafficking does not only exists in third world countries, but also occurs here in Canada. She explains how people end up in human trafficking. While she is doing this, she is being bias because of her word choice such as “trapped in sex trade”, “forced into sex work”, and “constant threat of violence”, which make things sound extreme. In this article there is a brief explanation about how Canada deals with human trafficking and about whether legalizing human trafficking would have a positive outcome.

3. The truth of trafficking

2 April 2009
  • This article discusses the campaign by the European Convention on Action against Human Trafficking in the UK for trafficked people to be seen as victims of crime rather than as criminals who have broken immigration laws. The article not only talks about that in most cases the individuals that are being trafficked end up in the sex industry, but also that 70% of these trafficked individuals are women. According to the police in Britain, it has been estimated that 10 to 15 years ago, only 15% of the women in the UK sex trade were foreign nationals. There has been a reduction of local women in the industry as evidence of economic growth and high employment.

4. Hillary Clinton on human trafficking

Sep 10, 2009
  • In this short video clip Hillary Cliton has a speech about human trafficking. She thanks everyone that has helped to stop human trafficking. During this video she briefly explains the issue involving human trafficking. Hillary Cliton is basically bringing attention to the issue and is explaining how important it is to try to fight against human trafficking. She is being bias in her speech which makes it sound more serious.

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5. ‘Trafficked women neglected’

08/05/2010
  • The article informs us about a meeting in Israel where rehabilitation programs for trafficked women were discussed and other possible solutions to the correlation between prostitution and drug use among trafficked women. The people at the meeting argued that the government must establish a separate budget for trafficked women because most of these victims do not have any legal documentation and can not receive any health care or rehabilitation.

6. South-East Asia: Human Trafficking Exposes ASEAN’s Underbelly

June 17, 2010
  • This specific article brings attention to the Association of South-east Asian Nations (ASEAN), who placed human trafficking as a security challenge and labor migration as a social and cultural challenge. So they are basically separating migration and trafficking into different areas. There is however some criticism towards this separation which is written in the article. Some believe ASEAN should deal with that migration and trafficking as one thing together to be effective. The article also talks about some human trafficking cases in other Asian countries and that the U.S. has tried to help these countries, but ASEAN says that the U.S. government has a broader definition of what trafficking means, including sex trafficking, labor trafficking and forced labor, whereas ASEAN only sees trafficking as only sex trafficking.

7. Sex trafficking a national disgrace

Oct. 15, 2010
  • This piece of writing is about the author Benjamin Perrin who wrote Invisible Chains: Canada's Underground World of Human Trafficking and his research results. In the article, they talk about that criminals have come to a conclusion that they can make a lot more money with a lot less risk of capture or serious jail time trafficking people instead of drugs. In addition, the article also bring attention to the fact that street gangs in Nova Scotia have expanded and that it has spread to Ontario and Western Canada where they compete for control of the domestic sex-trafficking trade. Canada, however, was not as serious about human trafficking as the US and Belgium. Perrin wrote The invisible chains because he wants us to open our eyes to the modern-day slavery all around us.

8. Girl rescued from the clutch of human trafficker

May 9, 2011,
  • This article is a excellent example on how human trafficking could occur and what the process is. In this case the human trafficking was in India involving a young girl. The article indicates that the police and organizations against human trafficking are working hard to fight it and hoping to safe more innocent victims.

9. Sheriff's deputy, 2 others arrested in Arizona human trafficking bust

May 25, 2011
  • In Arizona there have been arrests of officers who are suppose to work for their country and not against. The article talks about how several police have allowed illegal immigration to happen and even have aided human traffickers. This surely is scary to the citizens because it would be hard for them to trust their countries safety system. This article brings attention to the fact that there are individuals who are suppose to protect human right not always do their job right.

10. Study finds 'alarming' human trafficking figures in Mexico's capital

May 26, 2011
  • The article by the CNN Wire Staff is about the laws and policies in Mexico for human trafficking. As the article states, there were 10,000 victims of human trafficking in Mexico's capital, were only 40 investigations where and only three convictions performed. The article talks about a study on the issue and that Mexico has to improve laws and policies. Many believe that the authorities are not investigating, nor are they asking witnesses enough. In this article you get to know a few additional human trafficking obstacles to justice.

11. MYANMAR: Bride trafficking to China unveiled

07 June 2011
  • In this article they are talking about cross-border human trafficking in Myanmar which involves women tricked into traveling to China to get work but then eventually end up forced into marriage. They not only discuss bride trafficking amongst Chinese women, but also Burmese. According to Save the Children, which has been working on this issue along the China-Myanmar border since 2002, trafficking for the purposes of forced marriage has increasingly been in the spotlight since 2006. They are however taking action for they signed a comprehensive trafficking memorandum to indicate that such arranged marriages are to be considered human trafficking. In the article you can read about their preventions strategies such as focusing on rehabilitation and reintegration.

12. LAOS: Family pressures exacerbate trafficking

10 June 2011
  • As if it is not bad enough that girls have to go through so much when trafficked, in some cases when they return back home their parents won`t except the girls return. In this article there is a story about a 14 year old girl that was a victim of human trafficking. In her story she explains her return to her village where her friends stopped talking to her because they thought she was a bad person. In the article they you can also find statistics from the International Organization for Migration.
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Why is Human Trafficking a world issue?

Human trafficking is a widely known world issue.Trafficking in persons is a serious crime that involves the movement of people across or within borders by threatening or forcing them, and exploiting them, whether by forced labour, forced prostitution, or other forms of servitude. There is evidence that human trafficking occurs all over the world which makes this a world issue.Trafficking in persons has been described as a modern form of slavery. It is a serious human rights violation and is reported by the United Nations to be the fastest growing form of transnational organized crime. The UN estimates that up to one million people are trafficked throughout the world each year. While anyone can be a victim, women and children are reportedly the primary victims. Identifying victims of trafficking can be extremely difficult. The victims may appear to be illegal migrants when intercepted at the border. Those involved in prostitution may appear to be willing participants. In most cases the victims may be too terrified to contact the police. Victims may not be able to ask for help because many may not speak either English or which ever language they speak in the specific country. Traffickers often control their victims by threatening to harm them or their families in their countries of origin should victims attempt to flee or contact someone for help. Since it is difficult to figure out if someone is being trafficked it becomes an serious issue for it is hard to solve the problem. It has been said that human trafficking is the third largest criminal industry in the world, outranked by arms and drug dealing. Human trafficking clearly is a world issue, the number of people trafficked each year is estimated by most experts to be in the millions. Given its current growth rate, low investigation rate and low prosecution rate, human trafficking is expected by some to take over drug trafficking as the second largest criminal industry in the world within the next decades.


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How the issue has evolved over the time frame of my scrapbook

Human trafficking has evolved little over time. It has however been identified as the fastest growing criminal industry in the world. So people trafficking has reached epidemic proportions over the past decade. The strategies of traffickers however has been evolved because they nowadays have found many new ways to traffic people.
Victims of human trafficking are not permitted to leave upon arrival at their destination which has been the case since the beginning of human trafficking. They are held against their will and forced to work or provide services to the trafficker or others. The work or services may include anything from bonded or forced labor to commercialized sexual exploitation. In the beginning when Human trafficking just had started, they usually used the victims for bonded or forced labor, but this eventually changed. Since human trafficking is expanding and generating huge profits for criminal organizations, which often have operations extending from the source to the destination countries. These crime networks also utilize smaller, decentralized criminal groups that may specialize in transporting or harbouring victims. Human trafficking now also is known to be perpetrated by small family criminal groups who control the entire operation. Individuals working independently may also traffic persons for profit/personal gain (which can include free labour).

What sides are involved in the issue? What are their viewpoints?

1.Trafficker
Since human trafficking is a highly profitable route to wealth and power, the trafficker usually does not care about the victims as long as he gets what he works for. The trafficker basically just wants the job to be done and make his profit which is easier in the case of human trafficking than smuggling drugs or weapons.

2.Victim
To understand trafficking and finding a practical solution it is a good idea to look at the problem through the victim’s eyes. Understanding how people become victims to trafficking and the struggle the victims endure throughout is necessary to create a well-founded campaign to end the terror of trafficking. Victims of human trafficking face a horrible experience which could be traumatic to them. They also face the additional troubles of becoming an illegal alien and overcoming language barriers. Trafficking victims normally don't get help because they think that they or their families will be hurt by their traffickers, or that they will be deported. So their viewpoint on the world is that there is no hope and no help for them out there.

How does the issue relate to other categories?

SOCIAL
Trafficking is a human rights issue as well as a social issue because it affects not only the rights and dignity of the individuals concerned, but also has a direct impact on the community and society. Trafficking can not be considered as just a criminal issue. It is primarily a matter of the protection of human rights, especially those of women and children. Prevention of trafficking cannot be successful without the involvement of the community as David Batstone said in his interview. The issue has several connections to the social category. In many cases victims are tricked and lured by false promises or physically forced. Some traffickers use forceful and manipulative tactics including deception, intimidation, isolation, threat and use of physical force, or even force-feeding with drugs to control their victims. All of these tactics could have an impact on the victim. The trafficked person could be effected mentally, physically and emotionally. Most impacts of this crime on the human security of the individual victims is obvious. For the victims who are often very vulnerable from a social point of view, especially young women and children who end up in a foreign country, who are being abused and who do not know their rights, trafficking is a social disaster. These individuals most likely will be traumatized by their experiences and as a result become depressed and have suicidal thoughts. Helplessness, withdrawal, disassociation ,self blame are all impacts a victim could have after having experienced the horrors of human trafficking. In many cases the victims after being saved, under go psychiatric disorders depressive disorders and psychotic disorders which makes it hard for them to be involved in their society.

POLITIC

The fight against human trafficking has become an increasingly noticeable political issue for governments around the world. In spite of widespread agreement on the need for multilateral cooperation in addressing this problem, it is still difficult for the government to solve the issue. The governments have a anti-human trafficking approach. There are so many things and political organizations involved when trying to stop human trafficking. One could question if international trafficking could lead to more internal trafficking and if so, what role do governments have in dealing with this? How can the monitoring and evaluation of counter-trafficking policies be improved? The political aspect of human trafficking is rather complex.

ECONOMICAL

The impacts of human trafficking are many. Aside from creating human misery, and straining political systems, the economic impact of human trafficking on national economies can be enormous. Since trafficking is illegal and not being taxed by the government it has a negative impact on the economy. The traffickers are making allot of money due to that. On top of this the government spends a huge amount on trying to put a stop to human trafficking.


Step Five
My three questions are posted under "Homelessness "
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